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Dynamic Learning Maps Consortium. (2021, December). 2020–2021 Technical Manual Update—Science. University of Kansas, Accessible Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Systems.


The publication of this technical manual update builds upon the documentation presented in the 2015–2016 Technical Manual—Science and annual technical manual updates. This document represents further contributions to a body of work in the service of supporting a meaningful assessment system designed to serve students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. Hundreds of people have contributed to this undertaking. We acknowledge them all for their contributions.

Many contributors made the writing of this technical manual update possible. Dynamic Learning Maps® (DLM®) staff who made significant writing contributions to this technical manual update are listed below with gratitude.

W. Jake Thompson, Ph.D., Senior Psychometrician
Amy K. Clark, Ph.D., Associate Director for Operational Research
Brooke Nash, Ph.D., Associate Director for Psychometrics

The authors wish to acknowledge Noelle Pablo for her role in organizing and compiling this update. The authors also wish to acknowledge Brianna Beitling, Alson Cole, Karen Erickson, Jeffrey Hoover, Zachary Hopper, Susan K. Thomas, Jessie Lancaster, Mari Langas, Ronda Layman, Mitch McCann, and Michelle Shipman for their contributions to this update. For a list of project staff who supported the development of this manual through key contributions to design, development, or implementation of the Dynamic Learning Maps Alternate Assessment System, please see the 2015–2016 Technical Manual—Science, and the subsequent annual technical manual updates.

We are also grateful for the contributions of the members of the DLM Technical Advisory Committee who graciously provided their expertise and feedback. Members of the Technical Advisory Committee during the 2020–2021 operational year include:

Russell Almond, Ph.D., Florida State University
Karla Egan, Ph.D., EdMetric
Claudia Flowers, Ph.D, University of North Carolina-Charlotte
Robert Henson, Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Greensboro
Joan Herman, Ed.D., University of California, Los Angeles
James Pellegrino, Ph.D., University of Illinois-Chicago
Edward Roeber, Ph.D., Assessment Solutions Group/Michigan Assessment Consortium
David Williamson, Ph.D., Educational Testing Service
Phoebe Winter, Ph.D., Independent Consultant